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FEATURED NEW PRODUCTS
what they are
how they work
|Premo™ Autophagy Sensor LC3B-GFP||1 kit||P36235|
|Premo™ Autophagy Sensor LC3B-RFP||1 kit||P36236|
what it is
Rat anti–mouse CD19 antibody conjugated to Qdot® 655 nanocrystals, validated for flow cytometry.
what it offers
how it works
Qdot® conjugated primary antibodies are designed for use on flow cytometers with a violet (405 nm) laser, such as the Attune™ Acoustic Focusing Cytometer. They increase the number of available dyes and provide greater flexibility when designing multicolor panels. Qdot® nanocrystals can be used in combination with existing organic dyes to increase the number of detectable parameters. They also provide the advantages of increased brightness and photostability.
what it is
how it works
The Click-iT® EdU assay is a superior alternative to traditional methods for detecting and quantitating newly synthesized DNA. Historically, active DNA synthesis has been measured by following the incorporation of the radioactive nucleoside [3H]-thymidine into DNA. This method was later replaced by immunodetection of the nucleoside analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). The Click-iT® EdU assay also uses a nucleoside analog, but in this case it is detected not with an antibody but a click reaction—a copper-catalyzed covalent reaction between an azide and an alkyne. In the Click-iT® EdU assay, the EdU nucleoside contains the alkyne, and the fluorescent detection reagent contains the azide.
The small size of the detection reagent compared to an anti-BrdU antibody eliminates the need to denature the DNA for access to the incorporated nucleoside. Eliminating the harsh denaturation step—a step that often destroys antigen recognition sites and sample morphology—provides a method that is easier and more reliable to perform, even on delicate stem cells.
- Learn More about Click-iT® EdU Cell Proliferation Assays
- Learn More about other products for Stem Cell Research
|Labeling stem cell proliferation with Click-iT® EdU. Human mesenchymal stem cells were incubated with the nucleoside analog 5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine (EdU). Following fixation and permeabilization, EdU was detected with a click reaction using the Click-iT® EdU Alexa Fluor® 594 Imaging Kit. Nuclei were counterstained with blue-fluorescent Hoechst 33342 before imaging with a DeltaVision® Core microscope using fluorescence and differential interference contrast (DIC).|
Loss of autophagy in erythroid cells leads to defective removal of mitochondria and severe anemia in vivo.
Mortensen M et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:832–837.
Autophagy is critical for red blood cell differentiation
Removal of organelles is necessary for the differentiation of mammalian red blood cells from precursor cells. Mitochondria are known to be removed through the autophagy pathway. In this process, the cytoplasmic components targeted for removal are engulfed in a double-membraned vesicle (autophagosome), which then fuses with lysosomes for degradation of its contents. Atg7 encodes the E1-like enzyme required in both of the conjugation systems required for autophagosome formation.
Atg7 is a key player in erythrocyte development
To test the role of Atg7 in erythroid cells, Mortensen et al. produced a hematological Atg7 knockout mouse (organism-wide knockouts of autophagy genes are lethal). They observed that CFSE-stained erythrocytes, harvested from Atg7 knockout mice and injected into wild type mice, disappeared from the peripheral blood supply much more quickly than wild type erythrocytes injected at the same time. Also, these same peripheral blood erythrocytes were stained to a much higher degree with annexin V, indicating an increase in cell death. Taken together, these data suggest that an erythroid-intrinsic defect is responsible for the increased cell death observed.
Atg7-deficient erythrocytes accumulate damaged mitochondria
Over the course of development, erythrocytes from Atg7 knockout mice accumulated mitochondrion-derived superoxide (detected with MitoSOX™ Red Superoxide Indicator), and the mitochondria within the cells showed increasing depolarization (as judged by tetramethylrhodamine, methyl ester, perchlorate (TMRM)), which indicated that erythroid cells from Atg7 knockout mice were accumulating damaged mitochondria. The authors further showed that damaged mitochondria accumulated in the erythroid lineage but not in the myeloid lineage of the same animals. These data suggest that the removal of defective mitochondria is an essential step during erythropoiesis, and that Atg7 is a key molecular player in this process.
View the bibliography reference
- Learn More about Products for Mitochondria
|CellTrace™ CFSE Cell Proliferation Kit||1 kit||C34554|
|MitoSOX™ Red Mitochondrial Superoxide Indicator||10 x 50 µg||M36008|
|Tetramethylrhodamine, methyl ester, perchlorate (TMRM)||25 mg||T668|
Imaging autophagy with the Premo™ Autophagy Sensor, Organelle Lights™ reagents, and MitoTracker® dye. A549 cells were transduced with the Premo™ Autophagy Sensor LC3B-GFP (green) and Organelle Lights™ Golgi-RFP (red), and then treated with 50 µM chloroquine. Twenty-four hours later, cells were loaded with 50 nM MitoTracker™ Deep Red Dye (cyan) for 5 min at 37°C and washed in dye-free DPBS. Nuclei were labeled with Hoechst 33342 (blue). Cells were imaged on a DeltaVision® Core microscope with DAPI/FITC/TRITC/Cy5 filter sets.
FIX & PERM® Cell Permeabilization Reagents: Great Data Require Great Starting Material
To accurately analyze intracellular markers by flow cytometry, cells must be fixed and permeabilized to enable detection antibodies to reach intracellular proteins. Preparation of cells for these protocols requires a delicate balance of adequately permeabilizing the cells to allow antibody access while maintaining the overall morphology of the cells. The extensively referenced FIX & PERM® Cell Permeabilization Reagents are the recognized gold standard for fixing and permeabilizing cells prior to analysis by flow cytometry.
Benefits of the reagents include:
- Superior access to intracellular structures
- No alteration of morphological scatter
- Manufactured under GMP standards for reliable performance
- Fast, easy protocols with consistent results
- Well-referenced standard for intracellular staining
The FIX & PERM® Cell Permeabilization Reagents allow mild fixation and permeabilization of cells, leaving their morphological scatter characteristics intact. This flexibility enables accurate identification of previously undetectable intracellular markers such as cytoplasmic or nuclear enzymes, phosphoproteins, oncoproteins, cytokines, and immunoglobulins.
Numerous references confirm many technical advantages of these reagents:
|Allow simultaneous addition of permeabilization medium and fluorochrome-labeled antibodies|
|Eliminate the need for additional lysing solutions|
|Compatible with analysis of most cellular antigens|
|Reduce background staining|
|Perfect for use with Invitrogen™ LIVE/DEAD® Fixable Dead Cell Stains for dead-cell discrimination|
FIX & PERM® reagents are suitable for flow cytometry analysis of normal and malignant leukocyte populations derived from various human biological samples (e.g., blood, bone marrow, etc.).
- Learn More about FIX & PERM® Cell Permeabilization Reagents
|FIX & PERM® Fixation and Permeabilization Reagents||4 x 5 mL, 200 tests||GAS004|
|Alexa Fluor® Dyes|
It’s now easier than ever to find information about Alexa Fluor® dyes—the leading and most trusted fluorescent dyes available today. With our newly redesigned web pages, you can quickly navigate to product information, performance data, and comparisons to other dyes.
|New Autophagy Web Resource|
Autophagy—literally, “self-eating”—is an essential cellular process that involves degradation of cellular components or entire cells. In normal cells, it helps regulate such fundamental processes as cell growth and homeostasis, but autophagy has also been implicated in pathological processes. Our new web resource makes it easy to find tools for autophagy research—including the first commercially available reagent for autophagy research in live cells, as well as a validated antibody kit.
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