Coelenterazine & Synthetic Analogues
Coelenterazine & coelenterazine derivatives complex with aequorin to offer Ca2+ readout in cells
In addition to native coelenterazine (C-2944), we offer five derivatives of coelenterazine designated cp, f, h, hcp and n by Shimomura and colleagues that confer different Ca2+ affinities and spectral properties to the aequorin complex (Table 1). Like native coelenterazine, these five derivatives can be used to reconstitute the aequorin complex both in vivo and in vitro. Aequorin reconstituted with coelenterazine hcp shows very favorable characteristics, including a fast response to binding Ca2+ and the highest luminescence quantum yield of these five coelenterazine derivatives. Aequorins containing the cp, f or h form of coelenterazine are reported to exhibit relative intensities that are 10 - 20 times that of apoaequorin reconstituted with native coelenterazine. Knight and co-workers reported that aequorin reconstituted with coelenterazine h is more sensitive to Ca2+ than is the native complex, thus providing a valuable tool for measuring small changes in Ca2+ concentrations. Coelenterazine n is reportedly the most useful low-sensitivity coelenterazine, producing an apoaequorin/coelenterazine complex that exhibits 10,000-fold lower luminescent intensity than the apoaequorin/coelenterazine hcp complex.
Figure 1: Ribbon representation of the aequorin/coelenterazine complex showing the secondary structural elements in the protein. Coelenterazine and the side chain of Tyr 184 are shown as stick representations. Reproduced with permission from (ref) .
Figure 2: The Ca2+-induced luminescence emission spectrum of native aequorin incorporating the coelenterazine luminophore (C2944).
Figure 3: Ca2+-dependent generation of luminescence by the aequorin complex, which contains apoaequorin (APO) and coelenterazine (C2944).
|C2944||423.47||FF,D,LL,AA||MeOH||429||7500||see Notes||pH 7||T1, 2, 3|
|C6776||457.53||FF,D,LL,AA||MeOH||431||9000||see Notes||MeOH||1, 2|
|C6779||425.46||FF,D,LL,AA||MeOH||437||8700||see Notes||MeOH||1, 2|
|C6780||407.47||FF,D,LL,AA||MeOH||437||9500||see Notes||MeOH||1, 2|
|C14260||415.49||FF,D,LL,AA||MeOH||430||7000||see Notes||MeOH||1, 2|
|C14261||399.49||FF,D,LL,AA||MeOH||433||10,000||see Notes||MeOH||1, 2|
1. Coelenterazine complexes with apoaequorin emit calcium-dependent bioluminescence. Bioluminescence emission maxima (relative intensity at 100 nM Ca2+) are as follows: C2944, 466 nm (1); C6776, 468 nm (0.15); C6779, 472 nm (20); C6780, 466 nm (16); C14260, 442 nm (28); C14261, 445 nm (500).
2. Do NOT dissolve in DMSO.
3. Aqueous solutions of coelenterazine (>1 mM) can be prepared in pH 7 buffer containing 50 mM 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.